On Creating Sympathetic Characters by William Kowalski

A Guest Blog from William Kowalski. William’s most recent book is Something Noble (Orca/Raven), a Rapid Read for Reluctant Readers.

Language is a living, organic thing, and words have a habit of shifting meaning over time.  This is precisely what has happened with the word sympathy.

Like ouzo and democracy, sympathy comes to us from the Greeks.  It’s derived from pathos, meaning “feeling”, and together with its prefix, which in English becomes “sym-“, it once meant to feel along with someone, or to join a community of feeling.  We have not completely lost this sense of it, but our understanding of sympathy has narrowed until it’s come to mean feeling sorry for someone, or commiserating with them.  As we writers develop our characters, we would do well to spend some time pondering the original, deeper meaning of the word.

Why are sympathetic characters so important?  Because unless your readers have some kind of emotional investment in their outcome, they won’t care what happens to them—they will become antipathetic.   As a writing mentor, I must often explain that a sympathetic character isn’t just one we feel sorry for.  It’s someone in whose struggle readers have become wrapped up, the more completely the better.  We feel the same range of emotion he feels.  We have joined her community of feeling.

We do this because we believe this character is a real, flesh-and-blood person, if the author has done his job properly.   What happens to her happens to us.  It’s all a skillful illusion.  So how do we pull it off?

The answer lies in the all-important practice of strong character development.  In The Poetics, Aristotle tells us that characters must be “good” (she must possess some redeeming quality);  “appropriate” (her qualities must make sense, based on her identity); “believable” (we have to believe that such a person could exist); and “consistent” (her character, while mutable, should also follow a pattern throughout the course of a story).  I go into more detail on Aristotle’s contributions to our storytelling culture in an article available for free on my website, called “Writing Secrets of the Ancient Greeks.”

But these are not the only considerations.  If a character is to be sympathetic, he must be in pursuit of something.  In his rules for writing, Kurt Vonnegut said, “Every character should want something, even if it is only a glass of water.”  In fact, the simpler your character’s goal, at least at the outset of the story, the better.  As we watch him go off in pursuit of that thing, we will naturally sympathize with his struggle.

All these rules can confound us if we try to follow them to the letter as we write.  The best practice for me has been to revisit them periodically, in order to remember the basics.  In this way, they become implanted, and eventually become second nature.

Remember that we don’t have to like everything about a character.  A flawed and imperfect nature makes him even more sympathetic, because we’re not perfect, either.  We have a much easier time relating to a character who screws up from time to time than to someone who always gets it right on the first try.

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  • Alanboy

    Thank you for this advice. Creating sympathetic characters is a personal stumbling block. I will list the points, and stick them to my laptop.


  • Remember that we don’t have to like everything about a character.  A flawed and imperfect nature makes him even more sympathetic, because we’re not perfect, either.  We have a much easier time relating to a character who screws up from time to time than to someone who always gets it right on the first try”
    I do not agree. Read: http://thewritingbeast.tumblr.com/tags

    Carleen